South Korea has used AI to bring a dead superstar’s voice back to the stage, but ethical concerns abound

It is a feat made all of the extra extraordinary as a result of the well-known people singer is useless.

Nationwide broadcaster SBS plans to make use of synthetic intelligence (AI) to convey Kim’s voice again to life on a brand new program, “Competitors of the Century: AI vs Human,” to air later this week.

It is not the primary time AI has been used to revive a well-known singer in South Korea.

In December, music channel Mnet aired “One Extra Time,” a present that used AI and holograms of late artists to pay tribute to their work.

And, on New 12 months’s Eve, Ok-Pop superstars BTS performed online with an AI model of singer Shin Hae-chul, who died after surgical procedure in 2014.

Latest AI performances have excited followers of their music and the know-how, however others have raised issues in regards to the ethics and legalities of resurrecting the voices of the useless. The creation of recent works — or revived voices — by AI additionally raises copyright points. Who is taken into account the proprietor? The creator of the AI program or the AI system itself?

Legendary Korean singer

Kim was aged simply 31 when he died in 1996 on the peak of his profession after a string of hits together with “A Letter From a Non-public,” “Tune of My Life” and “Within the Wilderness.”

His dying was thought-about to be so stunning that some have by no means accepted the official explanation for suicide, as a substitute selecting to imagine conspiracy theories that he was murdered.

A long time later, followers nonetheless collect in a road named in his honor close to his childhood dwelling within the metropolis of Daegu, although this 12 months’s tributes have been largely held on-line as a result of coronavirus pandemic.

Murals of the artist gaze over the road, the place vacationers sit on benches formed like guitars and hearken to musicians enjoying his biggest hits.

A hologram concert of late South Korean singer Kim Kwang-seok was held in his hometown of Daegu on June 10, 2016.
Tourists can visit a street dedicated to Kim Kwang-seok in the city of Daegu.

So, when nationwide broadcaster SBS introduced that it was utilizing AI to recreate the Kim’s voice on a brand new program set to air this month, it despatched followers right into a frenzy.

A one-minute promotional clip of Kim singing “I Miss You,” a ballad launched by Kim Bum-soo in 2002, has been considered greater than 145,000 occasions on YouTube since December. And a video displaying the process behind the episode has been considered greater than 750,000 occasions because it was posted on January 6.

“The recovered voice sounds very a lot alike him, as if Kim recorded it alive,” stated Kim Jou-yeon, a Kim fan for 30 years.

It even impressed a younger fan Park Hye-hyun, who was simply two years previous when Kim died. “One among my needs was to listen to extra songs in Kim’s voice … I had tears,” she stated.

Present impressed by a Go match

SBS Producer Nam Sang-moon stated the concept for an AI versus human competitors got here to him after he watched world champion Lee Se-dol tackle South Korean AI program HanDol within the historic technique sport of Go in 2019.

Surprisingly, Lee received certainly one of their three matches.

Only a month earlier, Lee had announced his retirement from skilled Go competitors, saying AI was “an entity that can’t be defeated.”

Go requires two gamers to put black and white stones on a 19-by-19 grid. Every competitor tries to assert probably the most territory by surrounding their opponent’s items so that they’re faraway from the board.

Go world champion Lee Se-dol took on Google's AlphaGo program in 2016.
Lee’s sport towards HanDol reminded Nam of Lee’s earlier match towards AlphaGo, an AI program developed by Google DeepMind, in 2016. That point, AlphaGo received 4 out of 5 video games, and afterward Lee stated he had “misjudged” the machine’s capabilities.

“Lee-AlphaGo was an enormous shock adopted by brief however enormous curiosity in AI, which remains to be being developed someplace, however we’re unfamiliar with it but,” SBS producer Nam stated in a cellphone interview.

Nam sensed the Korean public was prepared for an replace and commenced pulling collectively the six-part AI competitors sequence, together with the AI efficiency from the late Kim Kwang-seok.

Recreating Kim

The audio AI firm behind Kim’s reincarnated voice is Supertone, a South Korean startup based in 2020 that gives AI audio options for content material creators, in accordance with co-founder and Chief Working Officer Choi Hee-doo.

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“For instance, BTS is de facto busy nowadays, and it might be unlucky if they cannot take part in content material as a consequence of lack of time. So, if BTS makes use of our know-how when making video games or audiobooks or dubbing an animation, as an illustration, they would not essentially need to file in individual,” Choi stated.

Supertone’s Singing Voice Synthesis (SVS) know-how learns voices by listening to a number of songs with corresponding notes and lyrics, Choi defined.

The system realized 100 songs by 20 singers earlier than it was given 10 Kim Kwang-seok songs to be taught. It now is aware of his voice effectively sufficient to imitate the singer’s distinctive type and pronunciation, Choi stated.

Within the SBS present, the AI Kim will not be competing towards a human singer — he’ll be singing a duet with one. “We revived Kim Kwang-seok to indicate the potential of it,” stated Nam, the present’s producer.

As an alternative, Ock Joo-hyun, the previous chief singer of lady band Fin.Ok.L, will probably be taking up the AI machine. Simply because the AI system realized Kim’s voice, it will likely be educated to imitate her, too.

Whereas some could think about a contest between an AI singer and a human as innocent enjoyable, others warn the know-how poses threats that should be addressed by stricter pointers and laws.

Tech-savvy South Korea is taken into account to be on the forefront of AI know-how, however there are requires extra regulation.

Amsterdam-based researchers Deeptrace counted greater than 14,000 deepfake movies on-line in 2019, and located that the majority of them — 96% — have been non-consensual deepfake pornography utilizing the photographs of feminine celebrities, many from South Korea.
Replicating somebody’s voice additionally poses severe dangers, particularly if faux audio is utilized in misinformation campaigns and fraud. In 2019, scammers convinced an government to switch a whole lot of 1000’s of {dollars} in money to an account, by faking the voice of his boss utilizing audio software program.
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